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A form of building in which the principal rafters extend down to ground level, and rest on concrete pads. The ends of the building are triangular.

Related Words : Rafter

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Used in two senses:1. Point at which a roof meets a wallhead.2. massive structure supporting the ends of a bridge

Related Words : Spandrel


Crushed stone, gravel, sand, or other granular material used in making concrete, mortar and plaster.  Coarse aggregate can be used to face pre-cast concrete panels, the product being known as 'exposed aggregate' panels. In some styles of pointing the surface of the mortar is brushed off to reveal the grains of aggregate on the surface.

Related Words : Wet dash, Concrete

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Used in three senses:

1: a section of a church to one side of a main section, generally with a lower roof, and separated from it by a set of columns supporting the wall of the main section

2: a passage between sets of pews or chairs leading from the rear of the church to the chancel area

3: in Scottish churches, a subsidiary wing used for a specific purpose, for instance as a burial vault, or for the celebration of Communion

Related Words : Wing, Arcade, Clerestorey

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This light, silvery, metal is relatively resistant to corrosion, except in salty environments. It is sometimes used to make gutters and downpipes. In sheet form it is occasionally used for ridging, but its lightness makes it vulnerable to high winds.

Related Words : Gutter , Ridge, ridging, Hopper head

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Apse, apsidal

A projection from the east end of a church, originally to house an altar, but more recently, in the Presbyterian churches, to house a Communion table. An apse-like (apsidal) extension is frequently used to house a pipe organ. Apses are usually rounded, or semi-octagonal.

Related Words : Organ chamber

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An arcade is a row of linked arches. Inside a church arcades usually separate aisles from the nave or choir. Blind arcades are sometimes used as decorative features on the exteriors of churches. 

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An arch is a curved structure spanning an opening. In a round arch the structure is semi-circular, and in a pointed arch the sides are less tightly curved, and meet at the top of the arch in a point. These are the most commonly-encountered forms of arch in church buildings.

In a masonry or brick arch the stones forming it are usually wedge-shaped, and are known as voussoirs. In a round arch the voussoir at the top is known as the keystone. Wedge-shaped stones or bricks can also be used to form a flat arch, which sometimes takes the place of a lintol, at the head of a window or door opening.

Related Words : Haunching, Romanesque, Keystone, Machicolation, Spandrel, Tympanum

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A building professional with a degree or equivalent qualification in the design of buildings. A recognised architect will also be a member of a professional body, such as the Royal Incorporation of Architects in Scotland. Major works of repair should be undertaken as specified by, and under the supervision of an architect with experience of conservation. An architect in practice will be covered by professional indemnity insurance, and clients should assure themselves that such insurance is in place.  

Related Words : Quinquennial inspection, Structural engineer


In Classical architecture, the pieces of stone which link the capitals of columns in a portico or colonnade. Part of the entablature.

Related Words : Capital, cap

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